PostgresSQL tutorial -2

Welcome to part-2 of the PostgresSQL series. You can find the part-1 here. We will start where we have left and continue learning through the terminal.

We will first learn about the GROUP BY keyword, which is used to know the count of certain column. In our case, we are getting the count of each gender.

We can also add a HAVING keyword, through which we can add condition in the COUNT column. Just like in below example, we want all the counts greater then 20.

Now, to look into the new set of example we will create a new car table. For this we will again get the dummy data from

Here, after filling the fields click on the DOWNLOAD DATA button.

Now, open the downloaded car.sql file in VS Code. Here we will edit the Create table command to have the correct fields.

After that we will insert the car.sql in the database, using the \i command.

Now, we have a car table containing all the 1000 rows.

Now, we can use the Aggregrate functions of MAX, MIN, AVG to get the same from a column. We are using the same on the price column.

We can also get the Average price of each make, by adding the GROUP BY command in it.

Now, with SUM function we can get sum of a column. Here, we are using it in the price column. Again, we are using the GROUP BY on make.

We can also give arthmatic operations in posgreSQL. Suppose we need to give 10% discount in all cars. So, we will create a new column and deduct .10 from it. Also, notice that we have renamed two of the columns in it.

We can also get the AGE from a date column. Here, we are passing the NOW() and dob and we will get the difference.

We will now check the concept of PRIMARY KEY. So, we will create a new table person, without any primary key.

Now, the problem is that we can inser two rows with the same id.

We will now try to ALTER the table to add the PRIMARY KEY constraints. But, it won’t be allowed because of the two duplicates id.

Now, we will first delete both of the records and then add the PRIMARY KEY constraints.

We also have a UNIQUE Key constraints, when given in any column, it will not allow to add duplicate keys.

We have given the same in the email field and now we are not able to add the same email.

Next, we will add another constraint called CHECK and here we are adding that the gender can be Male or Female only.

After that we are able to insert two rows with proper gender. But when we try to insert a row with gender FeMale, it fails.

Now, we will check how to update row. Here, we are first updating a single item in id 3. After that we are updating two elements in id 1.

Next, we will learn about JOINS. So, we will create a bike table and a customer table.

Notice, that in the customer table, we have a foreign key called bik_id which is referencing id from bike table. We have also made the bike_id as UNIQUE so each customer can have only 1 bike.

After this we will insert some rows in bike and customer table. All the rows in customer table have a bike associated with it.

We have added one more row in the customer table, which don’t have any bike associated with it.

Now, we will see the INNER JOIN. Here, we are joining the two tables on the reference key of bike_id in customer and id in bike.

We are also getting some of the columns only from each table. So, the result are three rows which are matched.

Lastly, we will do a LEFT JOIN from customer to bike. Here, the customer with no bike will also be shown.

This completes our PostgreSQL tutorial.




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Nabendu Biswas

Nabendu Biswas

Founder TWD, JavaScript & ReactJS Trainer, Youtuber, Blogger

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